Monday, February 1, 2016

Engineering vs engineering technology

Engineering and engineering technology are separate but closely related professional areas that differ in:

  • Curricular Focus – Engineering programs often focus on theory and conceptual design, while engineering technology programs usually focus on application and implementation. Engineering programs typically require additional, higher-level mathematics, including multiple semesters of calculus and calculus-based theoretical science courses, while engineering technology programs typically focus on algebra, trigonometry, applied calculus, and other courses that are more practical than theoretical in nature.
  • Career Paths – Graduates from engineering programs are called engineers and often pursue entry-level work involving conceptual design or research and development. Many continue on to graduate-level work in engineering. Graduates of four-year engineering technology programs are called technologists, while graduates of two-year engineering technology programs are called technicians. These professionals are most likely to enter positions in sectors such as construction, manufacturing, product design, testing, or technical services and sales. Those who pursue further study often consider engineering, facilities management, or business administration.

There is much overlap between the fields. Engineers may pursue MBAs and open their own consulting firms, while technologists may spend their entire careers in design capacities.

For ABET accreditation, engineering and engineering technology programs are reviewed and accredited by two separate accreditation commissions, using two separate sets of accreditation criteria: the Engineering Accreditation Commission and the Engineering Technology Accreditation Commission.


Sunday, January 31, 2016

Macro to Split the Mail Merged Letters

Recently I came across this issue in my project. In our testing project, we follow a different Defect Management tool and the Development comapny using a different defect management system. Our tool can give all the defects in a Excel sheet. But the other party needs each individual defect in a single word file in their template.

So we got their template. And I have checked whether we have all the necessary fields in our excel file to fit in their Word Template. Except one field almost every items like Defect Description, Tester Name, Testd Date etc. So i used the mail merge option in Word and used the excel file as data source. Fitted in the necessary fields from Excel in the Word file. Used the mail merge wizard and generated all the defects in their template as a continuous document. But the developers need them in a separate files as incident logs. So i was searching for the options to split the files in MS Word itself. But there is no way. So i wanted to try the macro program. Fortunately i got my solution in The wollowing macro written by someone saved me a lot of time. I have created a new macro to my consolidated letters document and pasted the below macro program and tinkered a little bit to change the folder name (where to store the splitted files) and File name (name for my splitted files). Then I ran the macro, it did the magic of separating the consolidated files to separated files... Try it when u face this sort of solution.... Thanks to

Sub Split()
Dim mask As String
Selection.EndKey Unit:=wdStory
Letters = Selection.Information(wdActiveEndSectionNumber)
mask = "ddMMyy"
Selection.HomeKey Unit:=wdStory
Counter = 1
While Counter <> DocName = "C:\" & Format(Date, mask) & "_Letter_" & LTrim$(Str$(Counter)) & ".doc"
With Selection
Unit:=wdCharacter, Count:=1
.Delete Unit:=wdCharacter, Count:=1
End With
ActiveDocument.SaveAs FileName:=DocName, FileFormat:=wdFormatDocument
Counter = Counter + 1
End Sub


Sunday, January 24, 2016

IES 2017 Syllabus And Pattern Change Information

As per the official declaration and notice from UPSC, IES ESE (Engineering Services Examination) 2017 is getting a new pattern and syllabus is being changed a bit.
Please note that the changes will be applicable from the year 2017 onwards. (not 2016!)

Here is a brief report of the changes -
CHANGE No. 1 : Changes in General Ability Test Paper Syllabus ( Objective-Type)

the portion of History, Geography, Economics, Polity, Life Science, Science & Tech

INCLUDED Current issues, Engineering Aptitude, Engineering Mathematics, Design, Drawing, Basics of Energy and Environment based questions.

CHANGE No. 2 : Changes in Objective-Type Technical Paper



Stage-I : Engineering Services (Preliminary) Examination (Objective Type Papers)

Paper-I : (Common for all Candidates)

General Studies and Engineering Aptitude Paper : 2 hours duration 200 Marks (max.)

Paper-II : Engineering Discipline-specific Paper : 3 hours duration 300 Marks (max.)

Stage-II : Engineering Services (Mains) Examination (Conventional Type Papers)

    Paper-I : Engineering Discipline-specific Paper-I : 3 hours duration 300 Marks (max.)

Paper-II : Engineering Discipline-specific Paper-I : 3 hours duration 300 Marks (max.)

Only those Candidates qualifying Stage-I + Stage-II to be permitted to appear for Stage-III examination

Stage-III :
Personality Test : 200 Marks (max.)

Electrical syllabus
IES ESE 2017 Syllabus-

Paper I
  • Engineering Mathematics
  • Electrical Materials
  • Electric Circuits and Fields
  • Electrical and Electronic Measurements:
  • Computer Fundamentals
  • Basic Electronics Engineering
Paper II
  • Analog and Digital Electronics
  • Systems and Signal Processing
  • Control Systems
  • Electrical Machines
  • Power Systems
  • Power Electronics and Drives
For Clear Details check the official link Click here


Sunday, January 3, 2016

Table of Electrical Symbols

Electrical symbols and electronic circuit symbols are used for drawing schematic diagram.
The symbols represent electrical and electronic components.

Table of Electrical Symbols

Symbol Component name Meaning

Wire Symbols

electrical wire symbol Electrical Wire Conductor of electrical current
connected wires symbol Connected Wires Connected crossing
unconnected wires symbol Not Connected Wires Wires are not connected

Switch Symbols and Relay Symbols

SPST switch symbol SPST Toggle Switch Disconnects current when open
SPDT switch symbol SPDT Toggle Switch Selects between two connections
push button symbol Pushbutton Switch (N.O) Momentary switch - normally open
push button symbol Pushbutton Switch (N.C) Momentary switch - normally closed
dip switch symbol DIP Switch DIP switch is used for onboard configuration
spst relay symbol SPST Relay Relay open / close connection by an electromagnet
spdt relay symbol SPDT Relay
jumper symbol Jumper Close connection by jumper insertion on pins.
solder bridge symbol Solder Bridge Solder to close connection

Ground Symbols

earth  ground symbol Earth Ground Used for zero potential reference and electrical shock protection.
chassis symbol Chassis Ground Connected to the chassis of the circuit
common digital ground symbol Digital / Common Ground  

Resistor Symbols

resistor symbol Resistor (IEEE) Resistor reduces the current flow.
resistor symbol Resistor (IEC)
potentiomemer symbol Potentiometer (IEEE) Adjustable resistor - has 3 terminals.
potentiometer symbol Potentiometer (IEC)
variable resistor symbol Variable Resistor / Rheostat (IEEE) Adjustable resistor - has 2 terminals.
variable resistor symbol Variable Resistor / Rheostat (IEC)
Trimmer Resistor Preset resistor
Thermistor Thermal resistor - change resistance when temperature changes
Photoresistor / Light dependent resistor (LDR) Photo-resistor - change resistance with light intensity change

Capacitor Symbols

Capacitor Capacitor is used to store electric charge. It acts as short circuit with AC and open circuit with DC.
capacitor symbol Capacitor
polarized capacitor symbol Polarized Capacitor Electrolytic capacitor
polarized capacitor symbol Polarized Capacitor Electrolytic capacitor
variable capacitor symbol Variable Capacitor Adjustable capacitance

Inductor / Coil Symbols

inductor symbol Inductor Coil / solenoid that generates magnetic field
iron core inductor symbol Iron Core Inductor Includes iron
variable core inductor symbol Variable Inductor  

Power Supply Symbols

voltage source symbol Voltage Source Generates constant voltage
current source symbol Current Source Generates constant current.
ac power source symbol AC Voltage Source AC voltage source
generator symbol Generator Electrical voltage is generated by mechanical rotation of the generator
battery cell symbol Battery Cell Generates constant voltage
battery symbol Battery Generates constant voltage
controlled voltage source symbol Controlled Voltage Source Generates voltage as a function of voltage or current of other circuit element.
controlled current source symbol Controlled Current Source Generates current as a function of voltage or current of other circuit element.

Meter Symbols

voltmeter symbol Voltmeter Measures voltage. Has very high resistance. Connected in parallel.
ammeter symbol Ammeter Measures electric current. Has near zero resistance. Connected serially.
ohmmeter symbol Ohmmeter Measures resistance
wattmeter symbol Wattmeter Measures electric power

Lamp / Light Bulb Symbols

lamp symbol Lamp / light bulb Generates light when current flows through
lamp symbol Lamp / light bulb
lamp symbol Lamp / light bulb

Diode / LED Symbols

diode symbol Diode Diode allows current flow in one direction only - left (anode) to right (cathode).
zener diode Zener Diode Allows current flow in one direction, but also can flow in the reverse direction when above breakdown voltage
schottky diode symbol Schottky Diode Schottky diode is a diode with low voltage drop
varicap diode symbol Varactor / Varicap Diode Variable capacitance diode
tunnel diode symbol Tunnel Diode  
led symbol Light Emitting Diode (LED) LED emits light when current flows through
photodiode symbol Photodiode Photodiode allows current flow when exposed to light

Transistor Symbols

npn transistor symbol NPN Bipolar Transistor Allows current flow when high potential at base (middle)
pnp transistor symbol PNP Bipolar Transistor Allows current flow when low potential at base (middle)
darlington transistor symbol Darlington Transistor Made from 2 bipolar transistors. Has total gain of the product of each gain.
JFET-N transistor symbol JFET-N Transistor N-channel field effect transistor
JFET-P transistor symbol JFET-P Transistor P-channel field effect transistor
nmos transistor symbol NMOS Transistor N-channel MOSFET transistor
pmos transistor symbol PMOS Transistor P-channel MOSFET transistor

Misc. Symbols

motor symbol Motor Electric motor
transformer symbol Transformer Change AC voltage from high to low or low to high.
Electric bell Rings when activated
Buzzer Produce buzzing sound
fuse symbol Fuse The fuse disconnects when current above threshold. Used to protect circuit from high currents.
fuse symbol Fuse
bus symbol Bus Contains several wires. Usually for data / address.
bus symbol Bus
bus symbol Bus
optocoupler symbol Optocoupler / Opto-isolator Optocoupler isolates connection to other board
speaker symbol Loudspeaker Converts electrical signal to sound waves
microphone symbol Microphone Converts sound waves to electrical signal
operational amplifier symbol Operational Amplifier Amplify input signal
schmitt trigger symbol Schmitt Trigger Operates with hysteresis to reduce noise.
Analog-to-digital converter (ADC) Converts analog signal to digital numbers
Digital-to-Analog converter (DAC) Converts digital numbers to analog signal
crystal oscillator symbol Crystal Oscillator Used to generate precise frequency clock signal

Antenna Symbols

antenna symbol Antenna / aerial Transmits & receives radio waves
antenna symbol Antenna / aerial
dipole antenna symbol Dipole Antenna Two wires simple antenna

Logic Gates Symbols

NOT gate symbol NOT Gate (Inverter) Outputs 1 when input is 0
AND gate symbol AND Gate Outputs 1 when both inputs are 1.
NAND gate symbol NAND Gate Outputs 0 when both inputs are 1. (NOT + AND)
OR gate symbol OR Gate Outputs 1 when any input is 1.
NOR gate symbol NOR Gate Outputs 0 when any input is 1. (NOT + OR)
XOR gate symbol XOR Gate Outputs 1 when inputs are different. (Exclusive OR)
D flip flop symbol D Flip-Flop Stores one bit of data
mux symbol Multiplexer / Mux 2 to 1 Connects the output to  selected input line.
mux symbol Multiplexer / Mux 4 to 1
demux symbol Demultiplexer / Demux 1 to 4 Connects selected output to the input line.
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